What Hath God Wrought
classic, The Life of the Mind in America (1965). Much scholarship focuses on upstate New York: Whitney Cross, The Burned-Over District (1950); Paul Johnson, A Shopkeeper’s Millennium (1978); Mary Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class (1981); Curtis Johnson, Islands of Holiness (1989); and David Hackett, The Rude Hand of Innovation (1991). For the South, see Christine Heyrman, Southern Cross (1997); John Quist, Restless Visionaries (1998); Randy Sparks, On Jordan’s Stormy Banks (1994); and Donald Mathews, Religion in the Old South (1977). General works of much value for this period include Jon Butler et al., Religion in American Life (2003); Richard W. Fox, Jesus in America (2004); and Sydney Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People , 2nd ed. (2004).
    To see how religious disestablishment paved the way for the Awakening, consult William McLoughlin, New England Dissent, 1680–1833: The Baptists and the Separation of Church and State (1971), 2 vols. The personalities of the evangelists can be viewed in Charles Hambrick-Stowe, Charles G. Finney (1996); Joseph Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement (1981); Charles White, The Beauty of Holiness: Phoebe Palmer (1986); and Robert Abzug, Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (1994). The Beecher family has a rich historiography; on their role in the Awakening, see Marie Caskey, Chariot of Fire (1977); Vincent Harding, A Certain Magnificence (1991); and James Fraser, Pedagogue for God’s Kingdom (1985).
    Works on particular kinds of Protestantism include David Hempton, Methodism (New Haven, 2005); Russell Richey, Early American Methodism (1991); John Wigger, Taking Heaven by Storm: Methodism and Popular Christianity (1998); Gregory Willis, Democratic Religion: Church Discipline in the Baptist South (1997); Thomas Hamm, The Transformation of American Quakerism (1988); Larry Ingle, Quakers in Conflict (1986); David Harrell Jr., Quest for a Christian America: The Disciples of Christ (1966); and Richard Hughes and Leonard Allen, Illusions of Innocence: Protestant Primitivism in America (1988).
    For American Catholics, see Jay Dolan, Catholic Revivalism (1978); Ann Taves, The Household of Faith (1986); Charles Morris, American Catholic (1997); and Jay Dolan, In Search of an American Catholicism (2002). For controversies within the Catholic Church, see Patrick Carey, People, Priests, and Prelates (1987) and Dale Light, Rome and the New Republic (1996). For a view of Catholic relations with the Protestant majority, see Lawrence Moore, Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (1986), 48–79. Catholic attitudes toward slavery are explained (along with much else) in John McGreevy’s excellent Catholicism and American Freedom (2003); see also Thomas Bakenkotter, Concise History of the Catholic Church , rev. ed. (2004), 294–302.
    The active role of women in the Awakening and its philanthropy has rightly received attention from historians. See Marilyn Westerkamp, Women and Religion in Early America (1999); Catherine Brekus, Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740–1845 (1998); Nancy Hardesty, Your Daughters Shall Prophesy (1991); Carolyn Lawes, Women and Reform in a New England Community (2000); Nancy Hewitt, Women’s Activism and Social Change (1984); Nancy Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood , 2nd ed. (1997); and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Religion and the Rise of the American City (1971). On the place of the Awakening in working-class history, see Jama Lazerow, Religion and the Working Class in Antebellum America (1995) and Teresa Murphy, Ten Hours’ Labor: Religion, Reform, and Gender in Early New England (1992).
    The Awakening occupied a prominent place in the lives of many African Americans, both free and enslaved. See Albert Raboteau, A Fire in the Bones (1995) and Slave Religion (1978); Gary Nash, Forging Freedom (1988); Mechal Sobel, Trabelin’ On (1979); John Boles, ed., Masters and Slaves in the House of the

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